CODE DU TRAVAIL : PENDANT LES TRAVAUX, LA CASSE CONTINUE

Par Eric Mouron
dimanche 11 septembre 2005
popularité : 17%

Le Parlement a voté en urgence le 13 juillet la loi dite Dutreil 2. Cette loi portait, en théorie, sur l’organisation du commerce. Mais le gouvernement en a profité pour faire introduire, en dernière minute, par le biais d’un amendement, des dispositions qui viennent modifier notablement certains droits importants, garantis jusqu’ici aux travailleurs. La plus grave de ces dispositions concerne la généralisation du système du forfait pour le paiement des salaires et l’institution de fait du travail gratuit.

En effet, le forfait aboutit à ce que le salarié n’est plus payé en fonction des heures qu’il a réellement travaillées, mais sur une base forfaitaire journalière, qu’il ait travaillé 8, 9 ou 12 heures. La loi et surtout la jurisprudence avaient limité jusqu’ici ce système à des catégories très limitées de hauts cadres. L’ajout du gouvernement, l’article 51 de la loi, ouvre cette possibilité à toutes les entreprises, avec comme seule restriction que les salariés qui se verraient imposer la rémunération au forfait « disposent d’une réelle autonomie dans l’organisation de leur emploi », notion totalement floue qui ouvre la voie à tous les abus.

Dans bien des entreprises, et tout particulièrement dans les PME, les salariés ont souvent les pires difficultés à se faire payer les heures supplémentaires qu’ils ont pourtant faites, et c’est une des premières causes de litige devant les prud’hommes. Avec la voie ouverte au « forfait », plus de problème pour les patrons, les heures supplémentaires seront légalement non payées.

Devant les protestations des confédérations CGT et FO, le ministre Dutreil, pour tenter de rassurer, a indiqué que cette mesure était conditionnée à l’existence d’un accord collectif et à l’approbation du salarié. On sait aujourd’hui, face au chantage à l’emploi, ce qu’il en est des effets de ce genre de protection, nul.

Et puis, comme si cette remise en cause n’était pas suffisante, le gouvernement, par le même biais, a fait introduire un article supplémentaire, 51 bis, qui remet en cause la périodicité des élections professionnelles dans les PME. Il y a quelques années les élections de délégués du personnel avaient lieu tous les ans, celle des Comités d’entreprise tous les deux ans. Puis le patronat arguant que cela « coûtait trop cher », le gouvernement avait porté la périodicité des élections à deux ans pour chaque institution.

Si la périodicité pour les délégués du personnel et les CE dans les PME était amenée à quatre ans, il serait aisé pour les patrons récalcitrants de s’opposer à la mise en place de délégués du personnel et de Comité d’entreprise, d’autant que l’ancienneté moyenne dans les PME atteint tout juste les deux ans.

C’est le même scénario qui s’est produit tout dernièrement à l’occasion du vote de la loi Borloo sur « les aides à la personne », où le gouvernement en a profité pour faire voter des dispositions, sans rapport avec le texte présenté, qui remettaient en cause les droits existants, comme la levée de l’interdiction du travail de nuit pour les mineurs et des protections concernant les salariés en cas de contrats à temps partiel.

À part cela, sans craindre le ridicule, De Villepin continuera à déclarer qu’il « n’est pas dans les intentions du gouvernement de remettre en cause le code du travail ». C’est ce qu’il fait tous les jours !

Eric Mouron est membre de Lutte Ouvrière


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