L’ENSEIGNEMENT FRANÇAIS A L’ÉTRANGER : IL Y A LE FEU !

vendredi 14 octobre 2005
par  Jean-Michel Hureau
popularité : 100%

La crise est dans l’École. Ça, on le sait depuis longtemps. Elle touche aujourd’hui un secteur moins connu, celui de l’Enseignement Français à l’Étranger. Longtemps favorisé en comparaison de la métropole, il est depuis plusieurs années l’objet de plans d’économies successifs qui concourent à en éliminer jusqu’à la structure.

Que sont les lycées français de l’étranger ?

Regroupés essentiellement au sein de l’Agence pour l’Enseignement Français à l’Étranger (AEFE), sous tutelle du Ministère des Affaires Étrangères, ils constituent un réseau d’établissements chargés d’assurer à l’étranger le Service Public d’Éducation pour les enfants de ressortissants Français, de diffuser la langue et la culture française et d’assurer une coopération entre systèmes éducatifs. Ils accueillent également des élèves nationaux et étrangers-tiers pour un peu plus de la moitié. S’il est vrai que l’enseignement y revêt une certaine forme d’excellence, et parfois même d’élitisme, ceci est dû pour une large part à sa population scolaire issue de milieux favorisés. Ces lycées accueillent souvent ceux qui, plus tard, feront partie de l’élite de leur pays. Ceci implique pour la France des retombées économiques à moyen et long termes impossibles à chiffrer mais néanmoins certaines. Ces établissements sont privés sous contrat d’association, sauf quelques uns à gestion directe. Le budget relève d’un organisme gestionnaire qui fixe, en particulier, le montant des frais de scolarité, souvent élevés. Les professeurs sont, soit expatriés (nommés par l’AEFE pour 2 fois 3 ans ou 2 fois 2 ans selon la zone), soit résidents (titulaires de l’Éducation Nationale, nommés sur place et rémunérés au salaire français) ou recrutés locaux (non-titulaires de l’Éducation Nationale mais aussi environ 500 titulaires non-résidents).

Que se passe-t-il ?

On assiste depuis plusieurs années à un véritable démantèlement de ce réseau. Depuis cinq ans, il y a eu une suppression massive de postes d’expatriés et il n’en reste aujourd’hui qu’un peu plus de 1200 dont la moitié sont des postes d’encadrement. Ces postes ont été remplacés par des postes de résidents rémunérés le plus souvent pour moitié ou en totalité par les établissements. Il s’en suit une surcharge financière qui implique une augmentation des frais de scolarité pouvant aller jusqu’à 50% en 4 ans et un « recadrage » sur la masse salariale locale. L’AEFE impose aux organismes gestionnaires des contraintes budgétaires de plus en plus lourdes comme l’augmentation de la participation aux salaires des personnels résidents. En parallèle, elle leur exige de pratiquer des augmentations de frais de scolarité modérées. Une des raisons est que, plus les frais d’écolage sont élevés et plus les bourses versées par l’État Français le seront également. Les organismes gestionnaires sont donc contraints d’opérer des coupes sombres dans le domaine pédagogique et dans l’encadrement : compressions horaires, alignement de classes, suppressions de classes, licenciements de personnels administratifs ou enseignants recrutés localement. On commence même à assister au non renouvellement de détachement de professeurs résidents, installés dans le pays parfois depuis plus de 20 ans et y possédant une partie de leur famille, ce qui constitue, bien évidemment, pour eux un traumatisme. L’AEFE s’en moque comme de colin-tampon et agit de manière autoritaire sans passer par des commissions paritaires, pourtant chargées du recrutement. La précarité de l’emploi s’installe et l’inquiétude est grande, tant chez les recrutés locaux français ou nationaux, que chez les résidents.

Encore une fois, l’économique prévaut sur le pédagogique et le social ! Encore une fois, l’École est traitée comme une marchandise ! Ce désengagement de l’AEFE est bel et bien une volonté de démantèlement du dispositif, qui n’est, en fait, qu’un des aspects du démantèlement général des Services Publics.


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