LA FIN DU CONDOR ? (UNE NOUVELLE AMERIQUE DU SUD EST EN TRAIN DE VOIR LE JOUR)

Par Emmanuel Dupuy
mercredi 15 février 2006
popularité : 29%

L’Amérique du sud a longtemps été la chasse gardée des Etats-Unis, qui a travers le plan Condor élaboré dans les années 1970, visait à mettre et démettre les régimes selon leur bon vouloir, faisant du continent américain , un enjeu essentiel de la confrontation Est-Ouest.

Après Lula au Brésil, Hugo Chavez au Venezuela, Tabaré Vazquez en Uruguay, Evo Morales en Bolivie, peut-être Manuel Lopez Obrero demain au Mexique, c’est un nouvel axe progressiste, qui est entrain de se mettre en place, contrecarrant quelque peu les projets de libéralisation des marchés du continent latino-américain, pourtant établis de longue date à Washington.

Par ailleurs, la victoire de la socialiste Michelle Bachelet au Chili, certes associée aux centristes, s’inscrit également dans un nouvel ordre géopolitique en Amérique latine. Ainsi, un continent, longtemps marqué par une « mise sous tutelle » du puissant voisin nord-américain, pourrait se découvrir de nouvelles perspectives.

La victoire d’Evo Morales à l’élection présidentielle bolivienne confirme un nouvel ordre géopolitique en Amérique latine, longtemps marqué par cette « mise sous tutelle » du puissant voisin nord-américain.

Ce front altermondialiste, démontre, dans la poursuite du formidable engouement pour le Sommet des peuples d’Amérique, en novembre dernier, que « l’ultralibéralisme de gouvernement » prôné par les Etats-Unis, n’est pas si attrayant pour les populations qu’ils veulent bien le laisser entendre. Ce débordement par la gauche remet en cause ce qui semblait acquis par la stratégie nord-américaine visant à se doter sur l’ensemble du continent américain d’un hinterland économique et politique sûr.

L’ALENA et la ZLEA, tendant vers un marché commun des Amériques voulu déjà par Bush père, au début des années 1990, censées assurer la pérennité de son approvisionnement en réserves pétrolières, lui permettant d’assurer et de contrôler la gestion des flux migratoires et de juguler selon ses critères exclusifs les trafics, d’ouvrir des débouchés économiques et lui autorisant une production agricole sans menace de concurrence subventionnée, notamment eu égard aux subventions européennes qu’elle récuse pour les pays dit ACP semble désormais enterré.

Le cas de l’Amérique latine est également exemplaire de la dégénérescence des partis politiques traditionnels, grands battus des derniers scrutins, qui semblent céder le pas à une mobilisation populaire mieux organisée.

Comme en témoignent par ailleurs la réussite mitigée des révolutions colorées en Europe orientale et au Caucase, la tentation du recours à des stratagèmes parallèles d’affirmation de puissance, via le réseaux d’ONG semi-officielles, ne permet plus aux Etats-Unis d’assurer aussi facilement que par le passé ce qu’ils ont l’habitude de considérer comme des « Marches » à défendre ou à conquérir.

En constatant également l’échec de la coercition au service de l’imposition de la paix, comme en témoigne le bourbier irakien, l’échec de la reconstruction afghane, la fronde iranienne et le rejet programmé du « Grand Moyen-Orient », force est de constater que l’idée communément acquise d’un expansionnisme infaillible des Etats-Unis perd un peu plus en crédibilité au fur et à mesure de l’actualité...

Loin d’être un simple pied de nez à l’hyper-puissance des Etats-Unis, cette victoire va sans doute faire des émules sur le continent et peut-être l’élément fédérateur manquant à la cohésion de l’Amérique latine, notamment dans les négociations commerciales mondiales. En étant un peu plus optimiste, mettons-nous à rêver à cette Union latine, au-delà du simple mécanisme économique proposé à travers le Mercosur, qui manque cruellement sur la scène internationale et qui peut-être le levier pertinent pour retisser des liens distendus avec l’Europe.

Emmanuel Dupuy est secrétaire général de l’Institut Prospective et Sécurité en Europe (IPSE)


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