MORALISATION ET POLITIQUE

Par Elie Arié
mercredi 6 décembre 2006
par  Elie Arié
popularité : 100%

Un des thèmes qui revient de plus en plus souvent, dans l’opinion publique, est celui du discours moralisateur sur le train de vie des hommes politiques, leurs ambitions, et leurs malhonnêtetés financières ; il faut donc nous interroger sur le sens de ce discours, qui, comme tout discours moralisateur, signifie toujours autre chose que ce qu’il dit.

Les avantages financiers du pouvoir sont aujourd’hui dérisoires par rapport à ceux des dirigeants des grandes entreprises, voire des footballeurs ; pourtant, à de rares exceptions près, le pouvoir a toujours été source de profits, et beaucoup plus dans le passé qu’aujourd’hui : personne ne nie les services rendus au pays par un Talleyrand, en dépit de l’immense fortune qu’il a accumulée au passage.

Il me semble que ce qui était accepté dans le passé ne l’est plus aujourd’hui, parce que la population a l’impression que ces avantages ne sont contrebalancés par aucun service rendu : le politique national est désormais perçu (sans doute à tort) comme dépourvu de toute marge d’action, face aux contraintes économiques de la mondialisation, à sa délégation de pouvoirs à l’Union Européenne d’une part, aux Régions de l’autre : on a mal mesuré les effets ravageurs du « contre le chômage, on a tout essayé », de Mitterrand ; face à l’impuissance politique, tout avantage autrefois toléré est désormais perçu comme injustifié.

Il en va de même pour l’étonnant reproche fait à l’ « ambition des politiques »...comme si le pouvoir, de tout temps, avait pu être conquis autrement que de haute lutte ! Là encore, dès l’instant où cette lutte pour le pouvoir est perçue comme une lutte pour des postes désormais dépourvus de pouvoirs réels, elle apparaît comme une fin uniquement personnelle, et non comme un moyen de rendre des services au pays.

Mais le plus frappant est la discordance entre ce discours des citoyens et leurs pratiques électorales.

Rappelons d’abord cette règle qui n’est démentie par aucune exception : tous les politiques mis en examen ou condamnés par la Justice ont toujours été réélus (Nucci, Emmanuelli, Mellnick, Balkany, Médecin, Tapie, etc. et on nous annonce le retour prochain de Juppé et de Carignon) : les électeurs choisissent dans l’isoloir ceux qu’ils condamnent au comptoir du bistrot. Par contre, face aux multiples propositions de limitation de mandats, par cumul simultané ou dans le temps, je n’ai jamais vu la seule proposition qui vaille, à mes yeux, et qui soit susceptible de modifier les comportements : l’inéligibilité à vie de tout élu condamné pour malversations financières avec de l’argent public.

Pire encore : l’opinion semble beaucoup plus sensible aux dérapages financiers des politiques qu’à leurs dérapages, à mes yeux autrement plus graves, politiques : personne ne bronche quand Sarkozy réussit, dans une démocratie, à empêcher, par voie non judiciaire, la parution d’un livre sur sa femme ou à faire licencier le directeur de Paris-Match pour une photo qui lui a déplu ; personne ne bronche quand Jospin, après avoir abandonné en rase campagne son parti face à la défaite programmée des législatives de 2002, annonce son retour politique lorsqu’une probabilité de victoire se profile aux Présidentielles de 2007 ; dans les deux cas, quelle crédibilité reste-t-il aux propos de ces deux hommes politiques ?

Notre classe politique est le reflet exact des mentalités de notre société : à citoyens désabusés, politiques cyniques (« puisqu’ils s’en foutent, on serait bien bêtes de se gêner »...) ; on n’imagine plus, aujourd’hui, un homme politique se suicidant, comme Roger Salengro, parce que son honnêteté est mise en doute, fût-ce à tort ; et le discours moralisateur d’une partie de l’opinion n’est qu’un processus hypocrite -comme tout discours moralisateur- d’auto- protection psychologique bien connu : « je les condamne pour entretenir vis-à-vis de moi-même l’illusion que je suis différent et que je ne mange pas de ce pain-là : ce n’est pas moi qui réélis les politiques condamnés, ce n’est pas moi qui achète les revues titrant en gros caractères sur la façon d’échapper à l’impôt, ce n’est pas moi qui aurais un compte en Suisse si j’en avais les moyens, ce n’est pas moi qui accepterais un parachute en or immérité si on m’en offrait un ».


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